Students in Primary and Secondary Schools

Posted on January 15, 2019 by

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Although current policy concerning violence in schools says that corporal punishment is banned, we find that it’s being practiced in schools as a frequent tool for discipline with barely parents’ ability to stop or report it. Reporting is usually for extreme cases reported concerning severe injuries or even death of kids that are printed to the public such as the death of a child in one of Punjab schools as a result of a teacher’s beating. There’s little record on child abuse or child death resulting from violence.
Possible reasons for expanding the use of corporal punishment in schools despite its legal ban may be administrative acceptance represented by the faculty and societal acceptance represented by parents. This occurrence is stirred by administrative acceptance represented by the faculty through not implementing the policy effectively; lack of communication with family; inability to find alternative means of discipline to teachers; and marginalizing the role of social workers. Social acceptance is exemplified by parents’ endorsement; lack of awareness; applying CP on their children at home; and refrain from reporting actively their children’s exposure to assault believing that the school won’t take deterrent action.
This study shows that CP is prevalent in schools especially in public schools. This failure of implementation was mainly attributed to administrative and social acceptance. We will consider in this chapter how to decrease the gap by dealing with factors involved. We presented earlier what strategies have been adopted in different countries to enforce the ban of corporal punishment. In this section, we’ll develop a professional approach to correcting student behavior that best suits the Egyptian context for a strategy for combating corporal punishment in schools, as well as specifying alternatives to corporal punishment.
Generally, policy enforcement can’t be the responsibility of a single party. Rather, all entities and organizations involved in policy making and policy implementation must collaborate to successfully reduce and then eliminate corporal punishment from schools to accomplish the best interest for the child. Traditionally, the Ministry of Education represents the policy makers in terms of education legislation and policy formulationnonetheless, empirical experience shows a vital need for other entities and associations concerned with child rights to interfere with new programs for child protection that operate in accordance with the ministry’s policy. To develop an approach to combating corporal punishment in schools in Pakistan, other approaches which have been successfully employed by other countries should be taken into consideration and assessed with terms of the Pakistani context.
In this regard, the following proposed approach would reflect a combination of different states’ experiences in combating corporal punishment with regard to the overall atmosphere in Pakistan.
To get started with the school-based elements, professional applications designed by specialized NGOs such as Save the Children and UNICEF should be introduced and supported by the Ministry of Education. As mentioned earlier in the literature review section, the model of this child-friendly school introduced by the UNICEF in Australia and the Eastern Caribbean; could be embraced and piloted in Egypt also. The pilot already implemented by Save the Children in Alexandria shows a way forward in this regard.
The practical experience of the latter project demonstrates that successful projects can’t avoid going through the long path of bureaucracy in order to scale up their strategy. There has to be full awareness that policy enforcement won’t be achieved without providing required facilities which accelerate program initiations by entities and organizations assisting in policy implementation. In regards to the UNICEF module, the schools in which the program is being piloted ought to be labeled with a different name like”child-friendly school” to distinguish them from regular schools, as experimental public schools are distinguished from regular public schools. As explained previously, the project is in need for proper financial support to continue since it relies heavily on external donations.
One approach to overcome the budget problem, might be to allocate part of the education budget to finance these programs so long as the final outcome would be directly associated with developing education system in schools. Data findings and other studies indicate that eliminating CP from schools will require the MOE to spend some money as a partial step to develop education. This budget allocation wouldn’t exceed the cost required to offer annual training to teachers, social workers, and school principals across the lines of the yearly training for schools in preparation for the yearly school contest sponsored by the USAID.
At the school level, the role of social workers in schools needs to be activated to match what is stated in their job description. To put it differently, a social worker would represent a mediator or facilitator between students and teachers so as to oversee the connection between them, sustain policy enforcement, report policy violation cases, and investigate students’ learning and behaviour problems so as to solve them. In order to add this dimension to the social workers’ job, they need to be permitted by the ministry and receive professional training through specialists in NGOs concerned with education and learning processes. Activating the social worker’s role this way would take in the instructor the burden of correcting students’ deviant or violent behaviour and the use of teacher would be solely for reporting and teaching the pupils’ progress to their prosecution. So as to empower and activate the social worker’s mission in monitoring policy enforcement and reporting policy violation, they should report directly to the Ministry of Education. So, rather than having a general inspector who comes to school once or twice per semester to evaluate teachers’ performance in class and make certain that everything is going well, with the social worker’s assistance, the whole school would be always committed.
With regard to the teacher, it is clear that most teachers lack appropriate qualifications as indicated in previous sections. The procedure for accredited teachers and continuing their development should start at early stages. To begin from scratch, teachers should be familiar with options to non-violent disciplinary tactics and behavior-management techniques early through the faculty of education where they learn the fundamentals of teaching. The two years of instruction they spend in schools before graduation would be an appropriate venue to practice those techniques and talk with their professors the challenges they confront. Later, upon real recruitment, they need to get regular training by the ministry or specialized NGOs as part of a piloted program. Teachers who exhibit commitment and excellence in such training could be given a professional certificate from a reputable educational organization. Depending on the size of policy violation, the sanction policy would say that those teachers would like have a permanent mark in their career file, have delay in their advertising, or be prevented from receiving any sort of usual incentives.
Considering disciplinary methods, educators will need to find means of punishment which aren’t degrading or humiliating to pupils to convey a message to the students that it’s the misbehavior that has been punished not the student himself. One of the most proactive means of discipline is”Meaningful Work” that curbs the student’s misbehavior through assigning tasks to them such as raising the flag for a while, helping out at the school’s cafeteria or any other tasks that require physical exertion. This strategy is apparently among the best ones because ostensibly it incurs punishment but it suits the student’s need to feel important by doing something useful. In-class time outs also are a good alternative technique which aims at temporary isolation for the student from the class to give them an opportunity to calm down and rethink his or her mistake. Additionally, the student could be punished through depriving his or her from engaging in any of the school’s activities or by taking a break. This sheet would be sent every day to the pupil’s parents to involve them in reforming the student’s misbehavior and keep them updated with the student weaknesses. In cases where none of these approaches work, suspension for some days could be utilised as a punishment leading to expulsion if the overall numbers of suspension days exceeded a maximum number.
The research findings proved a positive connection between administrative approval and the use of corporal punishment in schools in the sense that school administrators themselves practice corporal punishment. Furthermore, they deal passively with parents’ complaints, don’t communication with parents, barely apply sanction on educators violating law, and have failed to activate the function the social worker. The study findings also proved a direct connection between social acceptance and the use of corporal punishment in schools concerning practicing corporal punishment in the home with children, poor follow up with the school, approval of corporal punishment in school, and refrain from reporting actively their kids exposure to corporal punishment.
It may be concluded also in the research findings that corporal punishment isn’t seen by most parents or teachers as an effective way of discipline, even though a minority see it as somewhat useful. Thus, there should be sufficient support for non-violent means of discipline if they are properly selected and implemented. This result denies the traditional assumption that corporal punishment helps pupils to study and behaves well, and keeps the teachers’ respect in class.
In response to this study findings which conforms to our hypothesis, recommendations were formulated to take care of school-based factors and family-based reasons for corporal punishment in schools. Regarding the school, it has been recommended that policies must be enforced by implementing sanctions on practitioners; that the social worker should be involved in reforming pupils and coordinating activities; and that teachers need more training on disciplinary techniques. Schools should involve parents more in reforming their kids’ behavior. Concerning parents, it has been suggested that civil society organizations including the media and religious communities might assist in raising parents’ awareness of the requirement to remove CP from home and school, specifying the right plan of action to report it, and clarifying the damage of CP on children.

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